a Record Label Should Know About
by Christopher Knab ,
Copyright January 2007
Back to The Academy
from the Upcoming Third Edition of
Is Your Business"
Record sales are the ďreport cardĒ for record labels. All the
Four Front strategiesóthe work done on Artist and Product Development,
Promotion, Publicity, and Performanceówhether online or through brick and
mortar retail stores must lead to record sales or those marketing efforts are
There are only two grades on a music retail report card. Itís the
pass/fail system; either you sold records or you didnít.
If a record doesnít sell, itís usually because the marketing plan
was poorly conceived or poorly executed (unless, of course, the music sucks).
Many musicians who put out their own records know something about music and a
little bit about business, but they know next to nothing about selling music.
A record label traditionally
sets up distribution and sales for a record before they begin to market it. They
get exposure for a record by getting airplay on radio and TV, securing
publicity from the print and broadcast media, and by supporting live
performance tours. Online promotional tactics are now part of the retail
marketing mix as well. But once the marketing
campaign is underway, the focus of a record label should be to stay in touch
with their distributor and work closely with the music retailers.
How Record Labels Work With Record Stores
For well over fifty years the relationship between
record labels and record stores has been a rocky but consistent one. Labels
need stores to sell their records as much as they need radio stations to play
their records. So, labels have developed many in-store marketing programs
for retailers to take advantage of. They create point-of-purchase materials
such as posters, flyers, endcap displays, bin cards, and counter displays. They
offer discounts on some new releases and back catalog items. They also offer
advertising plans for print and broadcast co-op advertising to most music
retailers. This is to guarantee that their current hit records will be
available at specific record stores for a specific sale price.
On the retail side, listening station programs are available from
all major record store chains, many independent record stores, and the newer
independent store coalitions that formed during the í90s to compete as a group
against the large music chain stores. Any ambitious new record label needs to
study these programs and participate in them or be able to offer them to
Record Store Realities
Today, record stores sell music recordings, but
theyíre selling a lot of other products too. Have you been to an independent or major chain
record store lately? If not, and youíre planning to release your own record, I
suggest you get yourself down to one as soon as possible. Things have changed
recently; here are three things to notice:
1. A smaller
selection of CDs, tapes, and vinyl from independent labels are on sale.
ďlifestyleĒ products such as clothing, DVDs, videotapes, comic books, candy,
and clothing are being sold.
delivery of music is finally beginning to appear at brick-and-mortar music
The commitment of record stores to support new music hasnít
changed. What has changed is the extent to which many of these stores can
support the hundreds of new releases that come out each week. Since the mid
í90s, many mom-and-pop stores that specialized in alternative music have been
forced to close or sell out to larger record store chains because they couldnít
compete with chain store prices.
Mass merchandisers, such as Circuit
City and Best Buy, decided to use
music CDs as loss leaders to get people into their stores. They started selling
a current hit record for $9.99 and lost money on each sale in order to entice
the consumer to their store, where they hoped the music fan would buy related
products; CD players, TVs, VCRs, and computers. This had a dramatic effect on
smaller music retailers who couldnít afford to sell music for less than they
paid for it.
In the mid í90s, a record industry policy known as MAP
(Minimum Advertised Price) was initiated. It required stores to stop
advertising these low priced CDs or forfeit the labelís offers of advertising
and in-store promotional support. It took too long for the MAP policy to take
effect. After almost two years of lowball pricing, over 500 independent record
stores across the country went out of business or sold out to large music store
By the late í90s, the MAP policy had finally proven to be an
effective deterrent, but in the year 2000 the policy was found to be
anti-competitive by the Federal Trade Commission and has now been repealed. The
lowball pricing policies have started to return.
So, Whatís This Got to Do with Your Record and Your Plans to Sell It in Record Stores?
This whole sorry MAP episode contributed to an environment at brick-and-mortar independent record stores where
they had to change in order to survive. Selling DVDs, videotapes, clothing and
other entertainment and lifestyle products is their solution. Carrying your
record may not be.
CDs donít leave a store much of a profit
margin. Granted, if a store could sell every record in stock (at the list
price of that record) things might be different. But they canít. Even if a
nearby chain store isnít selling a CD at $9.99, theyíre usually selling a
$16.98 or $17.98 list price record for around $12 or $13. However, a store pays
around $10.85 to $11.40 for those recordsóso do the math. Independent stores
have to compete with prices of other neighboring stores, so they canít sell
their records for the list price.
This situation has forced most independent stores to find other
products to sell that have a higher markup. Lifestyle products, used CDs,
collector CDs and vinyl, blank tapes and blank CDRs provide that higher margin.
Your new release does not, unless you can convince them that they will sell lots
of your record and the quantity of sales will make up for the low markup.
Some major chain stores are ready for the digital distribution of
music. They offer kiosks that enable shoppers to request a selection of songs
to be downloaded directly to a customer's iPod or MP3 player. It's about time,
As things stand today, the labels still need the traditional
music stores and will continue to work closely with them. We are, as of this
edition, just on the dawn of the age of retail stores embracing downloadable
options for their customers. Those who embrace it and stay ahead of the curve
will most likely succeed and continue to also offer traditional CDs. At the
same time, record stores are stocking their shelves with whatever music-scene
"lifestyle" products they can get their hands on. This is something
to watch, because new opportunities for in-store merchandising will be necessary
for cutting edge record labels and musicians alike to take advantage of.
Music retail is the weakest link in most record
labelís marketing plans. But very little has been written about the realities
of the brick-and-mortar record retailers, so letís take a look at this much
misunderstood and neglected link in music marketingóthe independent record
When you think of an independent record store, what comes to
mind? Did you see the movie (or read the book) High Fidelity?
Thatís the best picture of what an independent record store can be (and maybe
should be)órecords, records, and more records, and a staff of goofy but
passionate retail clerks who love music and want every customer to love music
as much as they do. This kind of record store still exists, but itís getting
harder and harder to find. Why, because it reflects a way of doing business
thatís getting harder and harder to maintain.
Independent record stores are the places where the music matters
more than any financial bottom line. Independent, or mom-and-pop music stores,
are where passionate music lovers can find the latest and the greatest new
releases. Theyíre the places where an independent record label can go to put
their CDs on consignment, where a local buzz can be created, where the
impassioned, music-loving staff can play your record for shoppers. They can
take pride in helping you launch your careeróif you take the time to study who
they are, where theyíre located, and what they want from you.
Major record store chains and mass merchandise entertainment
stores obviously have a commitment to music, but they canít afford to be too
experimental or too niched in selecting the music they stock. Seek out the
hipper large record stores in your area. Youíll be surprised how much of a commitment
many of these stores have to their local independent bands and artists.
Itís up to You to Convince Record Stores to Carry Your CD
and Work with You
When record store buyers choose records to buy itís a
business decision, not an emotional decision. I know this from first-hand
experience. I owned a record store for ten years. The first lesson I had to learn was that I
couldnít carry every record I wanted to carry. I had to choose the ones I felt
I could sell, out of all the new releases coming out each week. Today that
decision is harder than ever to make.
Itís estimated that over 1000- plus new CD titles are released
each week! Yow!Ö just a couple of years
ago, there were about 500 new CD titles released each week. No store on the
planet can carry that many new titles. So, music retailers can only select
those titles that they feel they must have.
This gets us back to the marketing plans you must create to get
your music on the air, reviewed in the press, and heard from concert stages. Do
those things well, and the report card youíll get at the record stores will
look pretty good.
If the buzz you create about your music reaches store employees,
and your label can create excitement about your release, that can make it a
necessity for the store to stock your record.
If you want record stores to carry your record, convince the
store buyers that they have to have it.
- Keep the
stores up to date on your other marketing efforts (radio airplay, press
reviews, concert attendance figures). Contact them regularly.
- Think up
some value-added promotions to offer the retailer. Value-added promotions are
things like giving a free live-CD to all the customers who buy your record, or
discounts off your older, back catalog releases, or discount coupons for your
upcoming live show.
- Give things
to the retailer to make their job of selling your record easier. For example, a
packaging option that can make CDs more appealing as holiday and birthday gift
ideas are slip covers that come in shapes, (heart shapes, etc.). The label must
create these slip covers, but they go a long way toward showing a retailer that
you want to help them sell your CD. What cool item could be a future
- Work with
your distributor to offer a special price on your debut record. Even though you
want to price your CDs competitively, do what many labels do when they
introduce a new artist: make the list price cheaper. So, instead of making your
first record $16.98, make it $13.98. The storeís price is cheaper and of course
itís cheaper for the customer too. But only offer the lower price for a limited
- One of the
most common tricks the labels use to create demand for a record is to release a
song to radio three or four weeks ahead of the street date (the day the
customer can buy the record). If you decide to do this, work with the retailer
to encourage them to take advance orders, or set up a special late night
purchase party if the demand for your record merits it.
- Give them
point-of-purchase items to put up around the store (posters, postcards, bin
- Check with
your local retailers to see what independent distributors and one-stop
distributors they buy their product from. Perhaps you can get in on some
seasonal promotion campaign or new artist program one of these outlets may be
- If you use a
distributor, get to know the sales reps and find out what stores they call on
to solicit new releases. Much of this business centers around personal
relationships and a rep who knows and respects you, your label, and your artists
can do a lot for you at the retail level.
- All the
major chain stores have comprehensive listening station programs that record
labels can buy in to, but be sure to research this carefully. Stores like
Tower, Borders, Barnes and Noble, Virgin, etc. are very expensive to
- Try to get
your CD into as many independent record stores as you can. Some of the spots on
the listening posts at these stores are not for sale to any labels. The best
indie stores leave room for staff favorites or CDs from local bands and solo
artists. Also, since many of these independent stores belong to a coalition
these days find out which coalition your independent stores belong to.
- Give free
copies of your CD to the store owner or buyer, and be sure the record store
clerks who might like your music get their own copies. I canít tell you how
many records Iíve sold simply by playing them in the store. Actually a good
record store is much like a good radio station. In this case the customer is a
captive audience and to this day youíll spot hip store clerks scanning the
shoppers and finding the perfect record to pique their interest.
permission to post your live show posters or flyers at the store and give some
free passes for your shows to the staff.
- Check for
any in-store artist promotions, like store concert series or autograph parties,
and be sure to bring your mailing list sign-up sheets to these events.
- Put your
records on consignment (at a competitive price with other artists of your
style) and call the stores regularly to check up on how they are selling.
pressing up some cheap limited edition sampler CDs and tapes that can be given
away to store shoppers. Put your contact information on these.
- Many independent and chain stores have their own
music publications, so be sure to submit your records for reviews and research
the costs of buying ads in the relevant store magazines.
- Ask about
the storeís website. Do they have any online promotional opportunities for you
to take part in? How about links connecting your site to their storeís
homepage? If they do have downloadable kiosks in their stores, ask how you can
get your CD into their system.
- Think about
any combinations of online and offline experiences your fans will use while
shopping for music. The future of music retailing will be one that finds
creative ways for a music fan to go from a storeís actual brick-and-mortar
site, to the storeís website, to a favorite bandís homepage, to radio stations
that are playing the bandís music, to content at cool Internet magazines and
e-zinesówith links allowing the fan to hear the music all the way down the
digital line. And, donít forget to include some clubs and other live venues in
your linking strategies.
To sum things up, every record store is in business to do one
thing; sell music. Granted, the music retailerís world is not what it once was.
Gone are the days when they could make a buck selling music and nothing else.
But this change can work in your favor as well. If they sell entertainment
lifestyle products like t-shirts and other stuff, give them a reason to sell your
It will be a long timeólike neveróbefore the record store
disappears from our cities and towns. So, take some time to study the stores
available in your area and in the regions of the country that your marketing
strategies expand into. Internet or no Internet, youíll always need to work
with record stores. Bank on it.
The creative record label and entrepreneurial musician will
make sure to leave no stone unturned when working with a retail music store. It
may not always be a music fanís final destination, but it will be an essential
Christopher Knab is an independent music business consultant based in Seattle, Washington. He
is available for private consultations on promoting and marketing independent music, and can be reached by email at: email@example.com
Chris Knab's book, 'Music Is Your Business'
is available from the Music Biz Academy bookstore.
Visit the FourFront Media and
Music website for more information on the business of music from